Endurance is understood as the ability to work without getting tired, and to resist fatigue that occurs in the process of doing work. Endurance manifests itself in two main forms:
in the duration of work at a given power level until the first signs of pronounced fatigue appear;
in the rate of decrease in performance when fatigue occurs.
Being a multifunctional property of the human body, endurance integrates a large number of various processes occurring at various levels: from the cellular to the whole organism. However, as the results of modern scientific research show, in most cases the leading role in the manifestations of endurance belongs to the factors of energy metabolism.
Researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden found that long-term endurance training at a constant pace causes epigenetic changes in muscle cells, namely, an increase in the methylation of more than 4,000 genes, which in turn is manifested by improved carbohydrate metabolism, increased muscle adaptation and elimination of inflammation. It may also be related to the development of muscle memory.
Types of endurance
Types of endurance
There are general and special endurance. General endurance is understood as the ability of the body to perform any work with high efficiency for a long time, involving many muscle groups and placing fairly high requirements on the cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems.
Special endurance is the ability to endure long-term loads characteristic of a particular type of activity. The ability not only to fight fatigue, but also to perform the task most effectively in conditions of a strictly limited distance or a certain time.
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Special endurance is divided into:
High-speed endurance (characterized by the ability of a person to perform fast movements for a long time without fatigue and violation of technique);
Speed-strength endurance (characterized by performing actions of high activity of a power nature for a long time);
Coordination endurance (repeated repetition of complex technical and tactical actions);
Strength endurance (indicates the muscular ability to perform heavy exercises for a long time without visible technical violations. This type of endurance shows the ability of the muscles to re-contract after a minimum period of time); Strength endurance has two types: dynamic and static.
Dynamic strength endurance is characterized by performing heavy muscle exercises at a relatively slow pace, but for a fairly long time.
Static endurance allows you to maintain muscle tension for a sufficiently long period without changing your posture.
Endurance is provided by increased functional capabilities of the body. It is caused by many factors, but first of all by the activity of the cerebral cortex, which determines and regulates the state of the central nervous system (CNS) and the performance of all other organs and systems, including energy. The central nervous system, its higher nerve centers determine the performance of muscles, the coherence of the functions of all organs and systems, the performance of movements and actions of an athlete. The central nervous system has great opportunities in this regard. In the process of endurance training, the entire system of nervous processes is improved, which is necessary to perform the required work, improve the coordination of the functions of organs and systems, and economize their activities. Along with this, the nerve cells of the brain increase their ability to work longer without reducing the intensity, they themselves become more resilient.
The most important factors determining the overall endurance are the processes of energy supply of the body: aerobic (with the participation of oxygen) and anaerobic (without the participation of oxygen). In sports practice, the term “aerobic performance” is considered as a synonym for the concept of “general endurance”, and the term “anaerobic endurance” coincides in its meaning with the concept of the so-called “speed endurance”.