Aerobic training

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Aerobic training( training, exercises), aerobics, cardio-this is any type of physical activity that involves a lot of muscles and consumes a large amount of oxygen. Aerobic exercises are performed with low and medium intensity, and they are also characterized by a dynamic, continuous and long-term nature of performance (more than 5 minutes), which is accompanied by a high heart rate and rapid breathing.

Typical aerobic workouts include running, walking, swimming, cycling, dancing, active games, and so on.

Aerobic endurance primarily depends on the functional state of the cardiovascular system, which provides oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. Therefore, aerobic training is also called cardio training, and aerobic endurance is called cardiovascular

The aerobic training zone can be calculated based on the maximum heart rate (MHF) using the formula for men: 220 – age; for women: 226-age. The aerobic mode assumes 70-80% of the MCHS.

From the point of view of biochemistry, aerobic exercise is a type of physical activityin which muscle movements are performed at the expense of energy obtained during aerobic glycolysis, that is , the oxidation of glucose with oxygen.

Aerobic training is designed to increase the body’s endurance, tone up, strengthen the cardiovascular system, and burn fat.

 Aerobic training

However, it should be remembered that no systematic scientific research has been conducted. This conclusion is rather based on the conclusion that energy consumption increases slightly during aerobic exercise . This ignores the fact that most of the daily intake is made up of basic metabolism, which slows down after stopping aerobic exercise. This is due to the fact that the body requires resources to restore what is lost. Moreover, the more energy stored by fat cells is spent, the more the body will try to compensate for the loss, storing it for the future and slowing down the metabolism. In order for the negative effects of aerobic exercise to be minimal, you will have to limit your daily caloric intake, and when the daily caloric content decreases beyond measure, the body begins to increase the number of fat cells. Thus, aerobic exercise should be applied carefully and deliberately, taking into account the negative consequences of its use.  The paragraph consists of questionable undocumented statements!

Studies have also shown that aerobic exercise causes muscle hypertrophy.

A 2014 study by Michele Tine found that a single 12-minute aerobics session significantly improves students ‘ visual perception and attention immediately after exercise and 45 minutes later, which in turn increases their academic performance.

American researchers from the University of California estimated the amount of energy expended by men and women who remained in shape and led an active lifestyle in their 60s or 70s. It turned out that older people who regularly ran spent the same amount of energy when walking as 20-year-olds. Normal walks didn’t have this effect. Such people spent 20% more energy when walking.

Aerobic exercise

The term “cardiovascular” or “aerobic” exercise refers to a type of physical activity that is characterized by a significant duration, is a combination of movements of a large number of muscles and other body systems and is accompanied, as a rule, by an increased heart rate. Examples of activities include walking, running, cycling, swimming, and cross-country skiing. The word “aerobic” literally means ” absorbing air.” This directly points to the role of oxygen in the oxidation (“burning”) of carbohydrates and fats to produce adenosine triphosphate, the main form of energy used in cellular reactions. The benefits of aerobic exercise include improving the functioning of the heart and lungs, reducing blood pressure It helps to boost your metabolism, strengthen your immune system, and increase your self-esteem and stress tolerance. This type of exercise is one of the most important components of maintaining health and alertness. To choose the right type and level of aerobic exercise, as well as to make exercise as safe and effective as possible, you should follow the following principles and concepts.

Training frequency

Training frequency refers to the number of sessions per week. To improve cardiovascular performance, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends performing aerobic exercise 3-5 days a week. Beginners and those with a low level of physical fitness are recommended to start with three workouts per week with no more than two days between them (for example, on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays). Over time, their number can be increased to five.

As the level of physical fitness and intensity of training increases, their frequency begins to depend on the load. Relatively difficult workouts require more time for subsequent recovery than moderate-intensity workouts, especially when the level of physical fitness is low. Therefore, when you make some progress, you should alternate short but intense workouts with longer, but associated with lower loads. At the same time, this reduces the risk of injury.

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Training intensity

Beginners most often ask questions: “How difficult should the workout be?” and “At what level of exercise will it bring the greatest benefit?”. There are several methods that allow you to estimate the intensity of your workout. The easiest way is to use a scale of the load experienced, which you compare your feelings when performing exercises. Most gyms use scales from 1 to 10 and from 6 to 20. If you follow the original Borg scale (from 6 to 20), then your workout should have an intensity level between 12-16. On the new scale (CR10), this corresponds to about a level of 4-6 out of ten.

Borg Scale CR10

  • 0 — resting state
  • 1 — very easy
  • 2-easy
  • 3-moderate load
  • 4 — quite hard
  • 5-hard
  • 6-hard
  • 7-very hard
  • 8 — very hard
  • 9-very, very hard
  • 10 — maximum load

Another fairly accurate and simple method is called the speech test. As the name suggests, it suggests that when performing aerobic exercises, you should warm up well and sweat, but your breathing should not be so intermittent as to interfere with your speech.

A more complex method, which requires special technical equipment, is to measure the heart rate during exercise. There is a correlation between the amount of oxygen consumed during a certain activity, the heart rate and the benefits obtained from training at such indicators. There is evidence that the greatest benefit to the cardiovascular system comes from training in a certain pulse range. Below this level, training does not give the desired effect, and above this level, it leads to premature fatigue and overtraining.

There are various methods that allow you to correctly calculate the level of heart rate. The most common of them is the determination of this value as a percentage of the maximum heart rate (MHF). First, you need to calculate the conditional maximum frequency. For women, it is calculated by subtracting their own age from 226. The pulse rate during training should be within 60-90 percent of this value. For long-term low-load workouts, the frequency is selected in the range of 60-75 percent of the MHSS, and for shorter, but intense workouts, it can be 75-90 percent.

Aerobic training
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