Bull” marked the beginning of a new era – energy drinks . Due to the intensive advertising it became very popular and today there are dozens of its analogues. Subsequently, drinks with a more diverse composition appeared on the market , but Red Bull remained something of a classic. Therefore, below I will focus on some research on its effect and composition.
Active ingredients in the Red Bull energy drink
From the package of Red Bull Energy Drink (250 ml) we can understand that it contains carbonated water , sugar, glucose, citric acid, taurine (1 g), glucuronolactone (600 mg), caffeine (80 mg), inositol , vitamins , panthenol, B 6 , B 12 ), flavors, colors (caramel, riboflavin).
But the active ingredients are actually caffeine (caffeine), taurine and glucuronolactone, and carbohydrates and B vitamins are added for an auxiliary effect.
Red Bull action
The effect of Red Bull on the human body has been the subject of various studies, some of which in terms of composition and physiological action are summarized and analyzed in the journal Amino Acids.
For some of the studies to assess the psychomotor impact, individual vigor and physical endurance after drinking the drink, 36 volunteers were used.
Some results show that after taking one bottle of Red Bull in the control group, aerobic endurance increased by 9% and anaerobic endurance by 24%.
In others, there was an increase in alertness of about 60%, concentration and memory by about 10%, heart rate by 15% with a slight difference in blood pressure, and a reaction time decreased.
These results confirm earlier studies on the effect of the caffeine-taurine combination.
The physiological role of the active ingredients
- Glucoronolactone is a metabolite of glucose metabolism, which in this case further enhances the energy efficiency of the drink.
- Taurine is known as a substance that affects mood during stress and changes mental behavior. The mechanism of action of taurine on the central nervous system (CNS) is related to its ability to be variously involved in the neurotransmitter system (glycinergic, cholinergic, adrenergic and that of gamma-aminobutyric acid). Its use is aimed at achieving high psychomotor arousal, avoiding excessive increases in blood pressure at higher doses of caffeine.
- Caffeine stimulates psychomotor activity, increases mental and physical performance and eliminates drowsiness. In a weaker type of nervous system, its effect is manifested in lower doses. It stimulates the skeletal muscles, dilating the blood vessels in it, as well as in the kidneys, where it has a weak diuretic effect. It is also used for migraines because it has a certain vasoconstrictive effect on cerebral vessels. Enhances glycogenolysis and lipolysis (release of fatty acids from fat deposits), and in large doses to the release of adrenaline [4 ]. It is this effect that is used when it is included in the so-called thermo-fat burners, but in the case of Red Bull it cannot be manifested in terms of fat metabolism due to the presence of simple sugars. Studies show that the effect of the three ingredients acts synergistically (complementary).
The physiological role of additional ingredients
The presence of nearly 11% (about 8.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) of simple sugars is key to brain metabolism, but this makes it unsuitable for weight loss diets.
Their inclusion further increases the energy effect of the product.
Vitamins B 6 and B 12 are key not only in terms of protein metabolism, but in this case they have a great influence on memory processes through their effect on brain RNA synthetases, but also have a lipotropic effect.
Inositol is a vitamin-like substance (vitamin B 8 ), which mainly affects fat metabolism as a lipotropic agent. The colorant riboflavin or E101 (yellow) is actually vitamin B 2 , but in this case it is not used because of its vitamin action.
The lethal dose of LD 50 with caffeine for 200 mg / kg body weight is high and it is practically impossible to achieve by taking Red Bull or another of our known energy drinks .
However, problems with blood pressure can occur when consuming more than 2 bottles.
People with cardiovascular problems should forget about consuming this type of product at all.
With greater consumption, sleep problems can also occur, as the doses are strictly individual and depend on the type of nervous system.
In conclusion, Red Bull Energy Drink has a positive effect on exercise, increasing both aerobic and anaerobic endurance.
Its even single intake has a beneficial effect on memory and mood, which has been established by neurophysiological and neuropsychological methods in both non-caffeinated and consuming people  .